Hidden Mold

Susan Lillard-Roberts www.mold-help.org

Aspergillus is prevalent in many foods due to the fermentation progression in the manufacturing process.  Vitamins are either made with a bacteria or aspergillus process.  Next time you buy vitamins, you may want to ask your retailer to call the manufacturer and find out which process was used for the manufacturing of this particular vitamin you are asking about.  See if you can get a straight answer.  It is important to know what foods and products use the aspergillus fermentation process in development so you can avoid them at all costs. 

A certain combination of vitamins, supplements and minerals are an integral part of the healing process due to the mold exposure.  For some reason companies don't like to tell us exactly what they use to manufacture their products, or use of additives For more information on foods and hidden mold, read the diet for mold impacted people which also contains information on hidden mold in foods.    

Peanuts, soybeans, Brazil nuts, and pistachios are uncertain as they are prone to carry an aflatoxin that has been linked to liver cancer in mice, rats, monkeys, shrews, chickens, and even humans.  The relationship between aflatoxins and liver cancer is well established. In addition the inhalation exposure to carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB 1) is considerable. Genotoxic chemical is known to react with DNA either directly or after metabolic activation to form adducts, a step thought to be relevant with respect to chemical carcinogenesis. The presence and the amount of specific DNA adducts provide a good indication of chemical exposure and genetic damage resulting the exposure to carcinogens and account for same of factors affecting individual susceptibility to cancer.

Immunosuppressive and carcinogenic Fusarium mycotoxins may possibly appear in some domestic food products.  Therefore, the immunological effects of Fusarium mycotoxins were tested on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from different blood donors. Deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol and nivalenol for their effects on T and B cells in a proliferation assay, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and natural killer (NK) cell activity on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The concentrations applied in our experiments were similar to those which can be found in normal human peripheral blood system (0.2-1800 ng/ml).  Among the eight mycotoxins tested, T-2 toxin, fusarenon X, nivalenol and deoxynivalenol exerted the highest immunosuppressing effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Mycotoxin-induced immunosupression was manifested as depressed T or B lymphocyte activity.  Furthermore, by virtue of inhibition of NK cell activity, the protection against tumor development may also be attenuated.

This is extremely important for a mold patient to be aware of.  There is already considerable evidence that mycotoxins produced by microorganisms in our foodstuffs constitute a serious threat to human health through likely reactions of their enols and epoxides with the vitaletheine modulators. Enol tautomers can be formed in ochratoxin A, patulin, and citrinin produced by Aspergillus-Penicillium. Trichothecens and zearalenone produced by Fusarium species are also capable of producing enol tautomers. The trichothecenes and vomitoxin, and the chemical warfare agent, nivalenol, in addition to having the capacity for enol tautomerism, have epoxide groups capable of reacting directly with the thiol forms of the vitaletheine modulators, as does T-2 and fusarenon X. Epoxides are also contained in the toxins, rioridin A, verracurol, verrucarin A, and muconomycin A.

Trichothecenes are produced by several common molds including species in the genera Acremonium (Cephalosporium), Cylindrocarpon, Dendrodochium, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, and most numerously in Fusarium. Trichothecenes are composed of a tetracyclic sesquiterpene skeleton containing a six-membered oxane ring, a stable epoxide group in positions 12 and 13 and a 9,10 olefinic bond. They have been classified into four groups. Fusarium spp. contain several well known trichothecenes including two highly toxic members of group A, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and T-2 toxin, and toxins in group B including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol. DON is the most common but least toxic of these. Trichothecenes are strong inhibitors of protein synthesis in mammalian cells. However, DOM received its common name, vomitoxin, from the vomiting that generally accompanies trichothecene poisoning. (D'Mello, et.al., 1991).

DON resulted in feed refusal in swine. In lambs, consumption of a wheat diet containing DON at 15.6 mg/kg of BW for 28 d did not alter feed consumption, weight gain, or feed efficiency. Oral administration of DON showed that it was rapidly passed essentially unchanged (95%) and excreted primarily in urine. Incubation of DON with ruminal microorganisms in vitro for 48 h resulted in partial conversion to deepoxy DON. These results indicate that the impact of DON on ruminants is lower than initially suspected. DON caused no organ damages to animals. Extremely low amounts of DON(<4ng/ml) were transmitted to milk after a single oral dose of 920 mg to a dairy cow. (Diekman and Green, 1992).

The FDA issued an "advisory" to federal and state officials recommending a level of concern for DON of 2 micrograms of DON/ gm for wheat entering the milling process, 1 microgram/ gm in finished wheat products for human consumption, and 4 microgram/ gm for wheat and wheat milling by-products used in animal feed. (Wood, 1992).

Growth of commonly occurring filamentous fungi in foods may result in production of mycotoxins, which can cause a variety of ill effects in humans, from allergic responses to immunosuppression and cancer. According to experts, five kinds of mycotoxins are important in human health around the world: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, certain trichothecenes, and zearalenone. These toxins are produced by only a few species of fungi, in a limited range of commodities. Ochratoxin A is a kidney toxin and probable carcinogen. It is produced by Penicillium verrucosum in cereal grains in cold climates, by A. carbonarius in grapes, wines and vine fruits, and by A. ochraceus sometimes in coffee beans. Fumonisins, which may cause oesophageal cancer, are formed by Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum, but only in maize. Trichothecenes are highly immunosuppressive and zearalenone causes oestrogenic effects; both are produced by F. graminearum and related species. Current reporting probably underestimates the effect of mycotoxins as a cause of human mortality.

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