1: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Nov 15;221(10):1441-4, 1420.

Tremorgenic mycotoxicosis in four dogs from a single household

Boysen SR, Rozanski EA, Chan DL, Grobe TL, Fallon MJ, Rush JE.

Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.

Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that induce undesirable effects. The effects of these mycotoxins vary depending on the chemical structure of the toxin and degree of toxicity. Mycotoxins that induce muscle tremors, ataxia, and convulsions are termed tremorgenic mycotoxins. Our report documents the clinical course of 4 dogs from a single household that were simultaneously affected by tremorgenic mycotoxins. Diagnosis of tremorgenic mycotoxicosis was confirmed by stomach content analysis from 1 of the dogs. The mycotoxins identified were penitrem A and roquefortine, which are both produced by Penicillium spp. Treatment goals following tremorgenic mycotoxin ingestion include minimizing absorption, controlling tremors and seizures with methocarbamol and pentobarbital sodium administration, and providing supportive care. Two of the affected dogs required ventilatory support. With early aggressive treatment, prognosis is good and recovery is complete without sequelae. It is helpful for the clinician to be familiar with the typical clinical signs at the time of admission, treatment, and clinical course of dogs with tremorgenic mycotoxicosis.